C Coding Interview Questions And Answers
C Coding Interview Questions And Answers – At Bell Labs, Dennis Ritchie developed the C programming language between 1971 and 1973. C is an intermediate level of structured programming and general programming. It is one of the oldest and most popular programming languages. There are many applications that use the C programming language, including language compilers, operating systems, assemblers, network drivers, text editors, print spoolers, modern applications, language interpreters, databases, and utilities.
In this article you will get most common and asked C programming interview questions and answers for fresher and experienced level.
C Coding Interview Questions And Answers
Because of its ability to support both low- and high-level functions, C is considered a middle-level language. It is both an assembly-level language, i.e. a low-level language, and a higher-level language. Programs written in C are converted to assembly code, and they support pointer arithmetic (low-level) independently of the machine (high-level). Therefore, C is often called an intermediate language. C can be used to write operating systems and menu-driven consumer billing systems.
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In C, every variable has an associated data type. Each data type requires a different amount of memory and has some specific operations that can be performed on it. It defines the data type that can be stored in the variable like integer, character, float, double etc. Data types in C are broadly divided into four categories:
Tokens are identifiers or the smallest unit of a program that makes sense to the compiler. In C we have the following features:
In a programming language, a scope is a block or region where a defined variable will exist, and outside that region the variable is automatically destroyed. Each variable has its own defined scope. Simply put, the scope of a variable is equal to its lifetime in the program. A variable can be declared in three places. They are:
In C, preprocessor directives are treated as built-in predefined functions or macros that act as directives to the compiler and are executed before the program is executed. Writing and running a program in C involves several steps. The main types of preprocessing directives are macros, include files, conditional compilation, and other directives like #undef, #pragma, etc.
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Static variables in the C programming language are used to hold data values between function calls, even when they are out of scope. Static variables retain their values within their bounds and can be reused in a program without reinitialization. Static variables have an initial value of 0 without initialization.
The calloc() and malloc() library functions are used to dynamically allocate memory. Dynamic memory is memory that is allocated from the heap segment during program execution. “stdlib.h” is a header file used to facilitate dynamic memory allocation in the C programming language.
For more information, see the article – Dynamic memory allocation in C using malloc(), calloc(), free() and realloc().
9. What do you mean by dangling pointers and how are dangling pointers different from memory leaks in C programming?
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Pointers that point to allocated blocks of memory in C programming are known as dangling pointers, i.e. when a pointer points to a memory location and if the variable is deleted and the pointer still points to the same memory location, it is known as a dangling pointer. variable.
A memory leak in C programming occurs when we allocate memory using the malloc() or calloc() library function, but forget to free the allocated memory using the free() library function. A memory leak causes a program to use an indeterminate amount of memory from RAM, making it unavailable to other running programs, causing our program to crash.
10. Using the sprintf() function in the C library, write a program to convert a number to a string.
Recursion is the process of calling a function directly or indirectly. A recursive function solves a given problem by calling a copy of it and solving smaller subproblems that summarize the original problems. Recursion helps to reduce code length and make it more understandable. A recursive function uses a LIFO (Last In First Out) structure as a stack. Each recursive call in the program requires additional space in the stack memory.
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Local variables are declared inside a block or function, but global variables are declared outside the block or function to be accessed globally.
Pointers are used to store the address of a variable or memory location. A pointer can also be used to refer to another pointer function. The main purpose of the pointer is to save memory space and increase execution time. The use of pointers is:
In C programming, typedef is a keyword that defines an alias for an existing type. Whether it’s an integer variable, a function parameter, or a structure declaration, typedef will shorten the name.
Loops are used to repeatedly execute a block of statements. The repeat statement will be executed n times inside the loop until the given condition is satisfied. In the C programming language, there are two types of loops with input and output controlled loops. An infinite loop is code that lacks a functional output. So it repeats over and over. There can only be two things when there is an infinite loop in a program. One that is designed to loop endlessly until a condition is met inside the loop. Others may have invalid or unmet break conditions in the program.
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A data type is converted to another data type by the programmer using the cast operator.
Typecasting requires the cast operator to cast a data type to another data type
The C language has many libraries that contain predefined functions to make programming easier. Header files contain predefined standard library functions. All header files must have the file extension “.h”. Header files contain function definitions, data type definitions, and macros that can be imported using the “#include” preprocessing directive. Preprocessor directives instruct the compiler that these files should be processed before compilation.
. This header file contains functions like scanf() and printf() that are used to receive input from the user and print the content.
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A function is a block of code that is used to execute a task multiple times instead of printing multiple times in our program. Functions avoid code repetition and increase program readability. Program modification becomes easier with the help of the function and thus reduces the risk of errors. There are two types of functions:
A macro is the name of a block of C statements as a preprocessor directive. Macros are defined by preprocessor directives. Macros are preprocessed, which means that all macros are preprocessed before our program is compiled. However, functions are not preprocessed, but compiled.
In C we have two main methods of converting strings to numbers i.e. using string stream, using stoi() library function and atoi() library function.
Each keyword is designed to perform a specific task in the program. Their meaning is already defined and cannot be used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. C programming language supports 32 keywords. Some examples of reserved keywords are auto, else, if, long, int, switch, typedef, etc.
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A structure is a keyword used to create user-defined data types. The structure allows you to store multiple types of data in one unit. Structure members can only be accessed through a structure variable.
A relation is a user-defined data type that allows users to store multiple types of data in a single entity. However, the union does not hold the sum of all members’ memories. It contains only the memory of the largest member. Since an association allocates a common space for all members, we can only access one variable at a time. A union can be useful in many situations where we want to use the same memory for two or more members.
An “l-value” refers to an object that has an identifiable location in memory (that is, has an address). The “l value” appears on the right or left side of the assignment operator (=). An “r-value” is a data value stored at a given address in memory. An “r-value” refers to an object with no identifiable location in memory (ie, no address). An “r-value” is an expression that cannot be assigned a value, so it can only appear on the right-hand side of the assignment operator (=).
Changes made to dummy variables in the called function do not affect the actual variables in the calling function.
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The Sleep() function in C allows users to wait for the current thread for a certain amount of time. The Sleep() function will put the current execution to sleep for the given time of the thread, but other CPU operations will continue to function properly. The sleep() function returns 0 if the requested time has elapsed.
In C, enums (or enums) are user-defined data types. Enumeration allows integral constants to be named, making the program simpler