Handbook Of Digital Forensics Of Multimedia Data And Devices Pdf
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Handbook Of Digital Forensics Of Multimedia Data And Devices Pdf
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Received: July 7, 2020 / Revised: July 30, 2020 / Accepted: July 31, 2020 / Published: August 5, 2020
Cyber physical systems (CPS) connect the physical world (systems, environments, and people) with the cyber world (software, data, etc.) to intelligently improve the operational environments they serve. CPS are distributed software and hardware components that are embedded in the physical world and can be connected to people. They offer intelligent features such as improving and optimizing the reliability, quality, safety, health, security, efficiency, operating costs, sustainability and maintenance of physical systems. CPSs are also highly vulnerable to security attacks and criminal activities. In addition, they are very complex and have a direct impact on their environment. This makes it difficult to detect and investigate security attacks, and such attacks can have a catastrophic impact on the physical world. Consequently, CPS must include safeguards in addition to appropriate and effective forensic functions. When security measures fail and an attack occurs, thorough forensic analysis is essential. Adding effective forensic tools and capabilities will support incident investigations. This contribution defines the field of CPS criminology and its dimensions: technical, organizational and legal. Examples of current research efforts in this area and the types of tools and methods they propose for forensic CPS are then reviewed. In addition, it discusses issues and challenges in the field that must be addressed by CPS researchers and developers. The article then uses the overview to discuss future research directions to address the challenges and create more effective, efficient and safer forensic tools and for CPS. The purpose of this discussion is to provide researchers with a starting point to identify gaps and challenges and develop appropriate solutions through their CPS forensics research.
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Cyber-physical systems (CPS) provide useful integration and interactions between the physical and cyber worlds . CPS offers a promising technology that adds many possibilities to various physically based applications in various domains. CPS can be used to improve automation capabilities in manufacturing processes for better productivity, efficiency, accuracy, safety, and reliability [2, 3]. It can be used in healthcare applications to provide real-time useful services to patients and healthcare professionals [4, 5]. CPS can be used in large commercial and residential buildings to improve energy efficiency and living/working conditions [6, 7]. They can also be used in transport systems to increase safety and efficiency . CPS uses and integrates a variety of technologies, functions and ideas from networks, distributed systems, sensors, embedded systems, software systems and hardware devices such as microcontrollers and actuators. CPS also incorporates various disciplines such as mechanical, biomedical, structural, systems, and electrical engineering along with healthcare, transportation, and energy to add value to applications in the physical world .
While CPS can offer many intelligent enhancements to improve physical systems and processes, like any other computerized and distributed system, it is vulnerable to security attacks and criminal activity. However, unlike other systems, security attacks can cause not only damage to data, software and hardware, but also great physical damage. These physical damages can include death and injury to people, damage to infrastructure, loss of resources, and malfunctions or breakdowns of machinery. An interesting case concerning a security attack on CPS known as the Stuxnet worm is analyzed in . The Stuxnet worm is a highly sophisticated cyberattack that uses several security attack techniques with the specific goal of disabling production equipment. Another attack was discovered a few years later on the US grid (Calpine Corporation, Houston, TX, USA) to cause a major blackout in the country .
When generic software is hacked or compromised, forensics (digital crime investigation) will involve analyzing traffic and access logs, tracing the sources of network traffic and finding out how it happened, who did it, and of course why. Forensic efforts will also use this information and other information about the operating software to build defenses against future attacks. As CPS applications are rapidly being developed and deployed in various critical domains, various security measures are being considered and included to protect them. Along with safeguards, it is extremely important that the CPS also includes appropriate and effective forensic functions. These are critical but difficult to achieve when attacks are detected and investigations are needed to find the culprits and mitigate the damage. In CPS, the forensic process becomes a much broader and more complex endeavor. Analysis, tracking, and investigation must cover all software and hardware components, digital and physical evidence, and all system-wide interactions, which typically involve largely distributed and heterogeneous components. In addition, currently available CPS forensic methods rely mainly on traditional techniques that, despite their effectiveness in some areas, may not be effective enough for CPS forensics. As a result, CPS forensics can take advantage of another inherent behavior/feature of CPS, which is access to massive amounts of data. Data collected before, during and after a security attack is available for analysis to arrive at more definitive forensic evidence. The key is to adapt forensic techniques and create new ones that can take advantage of this data.
In this paper, we provide an overview of CPS forensics and then highlight the challenges of applying various techniques to CPS forensics. The aim is to help outline possible solutions using different approaches to improved and more efficient CPS forensic operations. We will first define and discuss the emerging field of CPS forensics and point out its different dimensions (technical, organizational and legal) and present some of the issues and challenges in the field. These problems arise due to several factors such as connection with the physical world; tight integration between heterogeneous components, people and software; and added vulnerability due to the active feedback and control loops necessary for effective CPS operations. We then discuss current approaches to CPS forensics, which leads us to the ultimate goal of this paper, which outlines new approaches and techniques to CPS forensics so that researchers and practitioners in the field have an overview of what is happening and what is possible . in terms of creating and effectively applying CPS forensic approaches.
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The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides background information on CPS, forensics and related work. Section 3 discusses security attacks and risks to CPS. Section 4 presents the forensic field of CPS from three different perspectives: technical, organizational and legal. Current approaches to enable forensic analysis of CPS are discussed in Section 5. Section 6 provides some discussions on possible future directions for research and development, and Section 7 concludes the paper.
This section includes some related work and background information on CPS, the forensic field, and relevant work in these fields.
CPS are embedded network systems, categorized according to fixed and continuous interactions between physical and cybernetic components . CPS is gradually being used everywhere to improve physical domains. Much of CPS is designed to support intelligent and context-aware critical applications . Predefined goals for the respective application domain are implemented through the monitoring and control processes provided by the CPS. Control decisions are usually made by the cyber world using clever algorithms created by software.
Unlike conventional embedded systems, CPSs are embedded network systems that consist of multiple heterogeneous distrustful components. These components can be computing nodes, sensors, actuators, smart devices and software. These components are connected via wired and/or various types of wireless networks, as shown in Figure 1. Both the sensor and actuator components are tightly coupled to their physical environment. Sensors and actuators provide the interface between the cyber world and the physical world. Sensors are used to monitor the physical world, while actuators are used to manipulate the physical world. One or more computing devices are used to run the control software
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