Object Oriented Programming Interview Questions And Answers
Object Oriented Programming Interview Questions And Answers – OOPs, or Object Oriented Programming, is a programming model or paradigm that revolves around the concept of “OBJECTS”. Objects can be thought of as real-world instances of class-like entities, which have specific properties and behaviors in the class model.
In simple language, a class can be considered as a blueprint or blueprint, based on which objects can be created. Therefore, an object is considered an instance of a class and is therefore sometimes referred to as an “instance”. The term “properties” refers to the “what” about the object, and the term “behavior” refers to the “how” about the object.
Object Oriented Programming Interview Questions And Answers
Attributes are also known as data, attributes, or properties, and behaviors are also known as functions, procedures, or methods in programming language.
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The concept of “objects” allows the OOPs model to easily access, use, and modify instance data and methods, interact with other objects, and define methods at runtime (during program execution). . It gives meaning to the OOPs model and diversifies its implementation.
In fact, the OOPs model is so popular that many of the most widely used programming languages support and use this object-oriented programming model or OOPs, such as Java, C++, Python, C#, etc.
OOPs stands for Object Oriented Programming. It is a programming paradigm that is defined using objects. Objects can be thought of as real-world instances of entities, such as classes, that have certain properties and behaviors.
Programming languages that use and follow the Object Oriented Programming Paradigm or OOPs are known as Object Oriented Programming Languages. Some of the top object-oriented programming languages include:
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Programming paradigms refer to a method of classifying programming languages based on their characteristics. There are basically two types of programming paradigms:
1. Imperative Programming Paradigm: Imperative programming focuses on how to implement program logic and define control flow as instructions that change program state. It can also be classified as:
A) Procedural Programming Paradigm: Procedural programming describes the steps a program must follow to reach a desired state, usually read from top to bottom.
B) Object Oriented Programming or OOP: Object Oriented Programming (OOP) organizes programs as objects, which contain some data and some behavior.
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C) Parallel Programming: The parallel programming paradigm divides a task into sub-tasks and focuses on executing them at the same time.
2. Declarative Programming Paradigm: Declarative programming focuses on execution and defining program logic, but not on detailed control flow. Declarative paradigms can be further classified as:
A) Logic Programming Paradigm: The logic programming paradigm is based on formal logic, which refers to a set of statements that express facts and rules about how to solve a problem.
B) Functional Programming Paradigm: Functional programming is a programming paradigm where programs are created by implementing and composing functions.
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C) Database Programming Paradigm: The database programming model is used to organize data and structured information such as fields, records and files.
Structured programming refers to a programming method that consists of a fully structured flow of control. Here, structure refers to a block, which contains a set of rules and has a specific flow of control, such as (if/then/and), (while and for), block structures, and so on. Routines.
OOPs or Object Oriented Programming basically consists of the following four features, and make sure you don’t miss any of them:
The OOP programming paradigm is considered the best programming style. It not only helps to write complex code easily but also allows users to easily manipulate and maintain it. Moreover, the main pillars of OOPs – data abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism, make it easier for programmers to solve complex scenarios. As a result, OOPs are very popular.
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A class can be thought of as a model or blueprint, which contains some values, known as members or member data, and some set of rules, known as behaviors or functions. Is. Thus, when an object is created, it automatically takes the data and functions defined in the class.
So a class is basically a template for objects. Also, you can create as many objects as you want based on the class.
For example, first, a car model is made. Then based on this model multiple car units are created.
An object refers to an instance of a class, which contains an instance of the members and behaviors defined in the class template. In the real world, an object is an actual entity that the user interacts with, while a class is just a blueprint of that object. Thus, objects use space and have some characteristic behavior.
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One can think of encapsulation as a way of putting everything needed to work inside a capsule and presenting it to the user. This means that, through encapsulation, all necessary data and methods are tied together and all unnecessary details are hidden from the common user. Therefore, encapsulation is the process of combining data members and program methods to perform a specific task, without revealing unnecessary details.
1) Data Hiding: Encapsulation is the process of hiding unwanted information, such as restricting access to a member of an object.
2) Data Binding: Encapsulation is the process of binding data members and methods together as a class.
Polymorphism is made up of two words – “poly” meaning “many” and “morph” meaning “form”. So polymorphism refers to something that has many forms.
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In OOPs, polymorphism refers to the process by which some code, data, method, or object behaves differently in different situations or contexts. Compile-time polymorphism and runtime polymorphism are two types of polymorphism in OOP languages.
Compile-time polymorphism: Compile-time polymorphism, also known as static polymorphism, refers to the type of polymorphism that occurs at compile time. This means that the compiler decides what shape or value the entity in the image should take.
In the example above, there are four versions of Add’s methods. The first method takes two parameters, while the second takes three. For the third and fourth methods, the parameter is the order change. The compiler examines the method signature and decides which method to use for a given method call at compile time.
Runtime Polymorphism: Runtime polymorphism, also known as dynamic polymorphism, refers to the type of polymorphism that occurs at runtime. This means that it cannot be decided by the compiler. Therefore, which format or value should be assumed is implementation dependent. Hence the name runtime polymorphism.
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Since the method to be called is determined at runtime, as shown in the code above, it is called runtime polymorphism.
The term “inheritance” means “the passing of some quality or behavior from a parent to a child”. In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the process by which an object or class (referred to as a child) is created using the definition of another object or class (referred to as a parent). . Inheritance not only helps keep implementation simple but also makes code easy to reuse.
If you’re a user and you have a problem, you don’t want to know how the software components work or how it’s built. You just want to know how the software solves your problem. Abstraction is the process of hiding unnecessary details from essential ones. This is one of the main features of OOPs.
For example, consider a car. You just need to know how to drive a car, not how the wires are connected inside it. This is achieved using abstraction.
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Classes do not use any memory. They are simply a blueprint based on which objects are created. Now when objects are created they actually initialize class members and methods and therefore consume memory.
No. An object must be created if the base class has non-static methods. But if the class has static methods, the objects don’t need to be created. You can call the class method directly using the class name in this case.
Constructors are special methods that have the same name as the class name. Constructors serve the special purpose of initializing objects.
For example, suppose there is a class named “MyClass”, then when initializing that class, you pass the syntax:
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Now here, the method called after the “new” keyword – MyClass() is the constructor of this class. This will help instantiate member data and methods and assign them to the myClassObject object.
Copy Constructor: A copy constructor is a member function that initializes an object using another object of the same class.
A copy constructor is a type of constructor, whose purpose is to copy one object to another. This means that a copy constructor will clone an object and its values into another object, as long as both objects are of the same class.
Unlike constructors, which initialize and assign objects to objects, destructors are also special methods. But destructors free resources and memory occupied by an object. A destructor is called automatically when an object is being destroyed.
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23. Are class and structure the same? If not, what is the difference between class and structure?