University Of Pennsylvania Phd Psychology
University Of Pennsylvania Phd Psychology – Photo: This photo shows Geoffrey K. Aguirre, MD, PhD, neurologist and associate professor in the Department of Neurology; Manuel Spitschan, graduate student in psychology, University of Pennsylvania; David Brainard, PhD, RRL professor of psychology and director of the Center for Visual Research and director of the Institute for Cognitive Science; it turns out that melanopsin (a protein and shortwave-sensitive S cones) in the retina have opposite effects and compete to regulate the pupil in response to blue light. see more
Philadelphia – Blue light can regulate mood and activate important biological responses. Researchers at the Penn School of Medicine and the College of Arts and Sciences have teased apart the different biological responses of the human eye to blue light, revealing an unexpected competition for control. Their work addresses the properties of melanopsin, a light-sensitive protein in the eye that sets the rhythm of our day-night cycle and the normal constriction of the pupil in bright light. He measured pupillary responses to stimulation by melanopsin and sensitized (S) cones, other blue-light-sensing cells that work during the day. Surprisingly, they found that melanopsin and S-cones have opposite effects and compete to regulate the pupil under blue light. Their full results are published in the latest issue of
University Of Pennsylvania Phd Psychology
“The challenge of studying melanopsin is that it is sensitive to blue light, the short-wavelength light emitted by digital devices such as smartphones, tablets and computers, such as S-cones,” Manuel said. Spitschan, author, University of Pennsylvania graduate. psychology students. “Previous studies of the human eye have not looked specifically at S-cones and melanopsin, because flashes of blue light stimulate both types of cells, so we don’t know if these findings come from one or both. A person or a student’s answer. To overcome For this problem, Penn’s team developed a specific visual stimulus: a flash of light that stimulated melanopsin but was not detected by S cones, and a second light that stimulated S cones but was not detected by melanopsin. Twinkle Lights. These lights were created using a machine that can sculpt and switch between computer-generated rainbows.
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The researchers had 16 people look at this bright light while recording their pupillary responses. Light that stimulates melanopsin causes the pupil to dilate slowly. To their surprise, they also found that stimulating the S cones made the pupils larger. That is, when the S-cone of the eye absorbs more light, the pupil dilates, contrary to what is commonly believed to be the natural pupillary response. This means that blue light causes a collision between the melanopsin and the S-cone, making your pupils smaller or larger. The melanopsin effect is stronger, causing the pupil to constrict in bright light of any color.
Dr David Brainard, RRL Professor of Psychology, Director of the Vision Research Center and Director of the Vision Institute, said: “In humans, for the first time, we can study the relationship between melanopsin signaling and cones, and how they interact or against each other.” Research in Cognitive Science. What are these special flashes? “The flicker that stimulates the S cones appears to switch between blue and yellow. The flicker that stimulates melanopsin is harder to see and looks like a soft light that fluctuates in brightness.”
Light enters the eye and forms an image on the retina. It has long been known that retinal images are perceived by neurons called rods and cones. The rod works in low light levels, allowing us to be seen at night. Signals from the rods and cones are converted by the brain into the images we see.
Recently, however, another class of retinal cells was discovered that also senses light. These cells are called photosensitive intrinsic ganglion cells and contain the protein melanopsin. Melanopsin is sensitive to light at wavelengths intermediate between those perceived by S and M cones. It appears to mediate light-driven functions other than visual perception, such as clock setting, circadian rhythm and pupillary regulation.
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The Penn team’s work made it possible to isolate and study the properties of human melanopsin isolated from cone cells. We can now ask what we “see” in melanopsin.
“This is important because we think that melanopsin may be related to health conditions,” said Geoffrey K. Aguirre, MD, an associate professor in the Department of Neurology. “For example, it seems that overstimulation of melanopsin leads to pain perception due to too bright light, while understimulation of melanopsin may be part of a seasonal disorder that causes the person to be depressed when there is not enough. We avoided the melanopsin response and cones to blue light, we can study how the eye is involved in these diseases.”
The patent on this method of photoreceptor activation and its application was filed by the University of Pennsylvania, and Spitschan, Aguirre, and Brainard are the inventors. Additionally, they have formed a company with the Penn UpStart incubator with the goal of commercializing tools based on these technologies.
Penn Medicine is one of the world’s leading academic medical centers dedicated to missions related to medical education, biomedical research and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine includes the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the first medical school in the United States) and the Penn Health System, which together own a $4.3 billion company.
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The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the nation for the past 17 years, according to U.S. News & World Report’s survey of research medical schools. The college is one of the top-funded institutions of the National Institutes of Health, with an allocation of $392 million in fiscal year 2013.
Penn Health System hospitals include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania – named one of the nation’s top “Honor Roll” hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Hospital; Chester County Hospital; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital, America’s first hospital, opened in 1751. Other affiliated hospitals in the Philadelphia area include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between the Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.
Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and initiatives. In fiscal year 2013, Penn Medicine donated $814 million to benefit our communities.
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